Naval construction technologies
The frame of the ship and the nomenclature of its major elements have been established over the years and are essentially the same for a wooden sailing boat or a large modern tanker. The basis of almost all boats is the keel, a longitudinal beam located at the bottom and running from bow to stern. At the bow, the keel is attached to a vertical or nearly vertical piece called a rod, which forms the bow of the ship. A similar piece, the brisket, is usually located at the aft end of the keel.
The ship acquires its shape through a series of transverse nervers, called spars, curved in a symmetrical manner and attached to the keel at their centers. Near the core, the frames are wider than on the sides, forming overlaps. The frames are held in position by longitudinal struts that move the boat from bow to stern. and they curve to fit the shape of the helm.
An additional effect
These are the cross beams that cross the ship from side to side and connect the frames. On very small ships, only the beams connecting the upper ends of the bulkheads are used, and the deck rests on them. On larger ships, beams are used at different heights, the number of which corresponds to the number of decks of the ship.
The liner of the boat is attached to the frame
In steel boats the planking is formed by a series of metal sheets riveted or welded to the frame, and in wooden boats by a set of horizontal planks called planks. The term is also sometimes used to refer to rows of plates in steel hulls. Wooden transverse walls or sheet metal, depending on the type of ship, they are arranged from one end to the other in various positions along the ship. These walls, called bulkheads, confirm the strength of the frame and are used to divide the hull into sealed compartments as a safety measure so that a leak in the hull floods only part of it, leaving the rest of the hull behind. The boat, with the other compartments, has the necessary buoyancy to avoid flooding.
A number of modifications have been made to the traditional methods of anchoring on ships
Many tankers use a longitudinal truss system, which uses a small number of large bends that are longitudinal, and the main parts of the frame that run the length of the ship. The interior of oil tankers built under this scheme is divided into compartments by a longitudinal bulkhead running the length of the ship, along the axial plane and other transverse bulkheads. The longitudinal design system in naval architectural engineering has also been used for other types of cargo ships in addition to oil tankers.